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Rules for preparing for diagnostic tests


Rules for preparing for diagnostic tests

The accuracy of the results depends not only on the reagents and equipment used, but also on the time and accuracy of collecting the test material. If the basic rules for preparing for tests are not followed, their results may be significantly distorted.
Blood test
For blood testing, the morning hours are most suitable. For most studies, blood is taken strictly on an empty stomach. Coffee, tea and juice are also food. You can drink water.
The following time intervals after the last meal are recommended:
• for a total blood count of at least 3 hours;
• for a biochemical blood test, it is advisable not to eat for 12-14 hours (but not less than 8 hours).
2 days before the examination, it is necessary to give up alcohol, fatty and fried foods. Do not smoke 1-2 hours before blood collection.
Before the blood test, physical activity should be reduced as much as possible. Exclude running, climbing stairs. Avoid emotional arousal. For 10-15 minutes you need to rest, relax and calm down.
You can not donate blood immediately after physiotherapy procedures, ultrasound and X-ray examinations, massage and reflexology.
Before donating blood, you need to exclude temperature changes, that is, a bath and sauna.
Before a hormonal blood test in women of reproductive age, you should follow the recommendations of your doctor about the day of the menstrual cycle when you need to donate blood, since the result of the analysis is influenced by physiological factors of the menstrual cycle phase.
Before donating blood, you need to calm down in order to avoid an unmotivated release of hormones into the blood and an increase in their indicator.
To donate blood for viral hepatitis, it is advisable to exclude citrus fruits, orange fruits and vegetables from the diet 2 days before the study.
General clinical urinalysis:
• only morning urine taken in the middle of urination is collected;
• morning dose of urine: collected immediately after getting out of bed, before taking your morning coffee or tea;
• the previous urination was no later than 2 am;
• before collecting a urine test, a thorough toilet of the external genitalia is performed;
• 10 ml of urine is collected in a special container with a lid, provided with direction, and the collected urine is immediately sent to the laboratory;
• storage of urine in the refrigerator is allowed at t 2-4 C, but not more than 1.5 hours;
• women are not allowed to pass urine during menstruation.
Collecting daily urine:
• the patient collects urine for 24 hours with the usual drinking regime (about 1.5 liters per day);
• in the morning, at 6-8 o'clock, he releases the bladder and pours out this portion, then during the day collects all the urine in a clean wide-necked vessel made of dark glass with a lid with a capacity of at least 2 liters.;
• the last portion is taken at the same time when the collection was started the day before, the start and end time of the collection is marked;
• the container is stored in a cool place (preferably in the refrigerator on the bottom shelf), freezing is not allowed;
• at the end of collecting urine, its volume is measured, the urine is thoroughly shaken and poured 50-100 ml into a special container in which it will be delivered to the laboratory;
• be sure to indicate the volume of daily urine.
Collection of urine for research on Nechiporenko (detection of latent inflammatory process)
• in the morning, on an empty stomach, collect 10 ml of morning urine taken in the middle of urination in a special laboratory container.
Collection of urine for the Zimnitsky test (the patient takes into account the amount of liquid consumed per day)
• after emptying the bladder at 6 o'clock in the morning, urine is collected every 3 hours during the day in separate containers, which indicate the collection time or portion number, a total of 8 servings. 1 serving-from 6.00 to 9.00, 2 serving - from 9.00 to 12.00, 3 serving - from 12.00 to 15.00, 4 serving - from 15.00 to 18.00, 5 serving - from 18.00 to 21.00, 6 serving - from 21.00 to 24.00, 7 serving - from 24.00 to 3.00, 8 serving - from 3.00 to 6.00;
• all collected amount of urine in 8 special containers is delivered to the laboratory;
• be sure to specify the volume of daily urine.
Collection of urine for microbiological research (urine culture)
• morning urine is collected in a sterile laboratory container with a lid;
• the first 15 ml of urine is not used for analysis, the next 5-10 ml is taken;
• collected urine is delivered to the laboratory within 1.5-2 hours after collection;
• it is allowed to store urine in the refrigerator, but not more than 3-4 hours;
• urine collection is performed before starting medical treatment;
• if you need to evaluate the effect of the therapy, then urine culture is performed at the end of the course of treatment.
Fecal analysis
• avoid taking medications that change the nature of feces and cause functional disorders of the gastrointestinal tract 2 to 3 days before the study.;
• do not examine feces after an enema, the use of rectal suppositories, taking laxatives or coloring substances, as well as pilocarpine, iron preparations, bismuth, barium, etc.;
• feces should not contain foreign impurities, such as urine, disinfectants, etc.;
• prepare a clean stool container;
• the contents of morning feces from 3 points are collected in a container and delivered to the laboratory within 2 hours.
Analysis of feces to detect helminthic infestations
• for two days, the patient should not eat hard, poorly digested food (”food waste") - seeds, nuts, raw vegetables and fruits with skins, as well as sorbents-activated carbon, etc., as well as mushrooms!
Tests in gynecology and urology
For women:
• do not urinate for 3 hours before taking the test (smear, culture);
• it is not recommended to have sexual contact for 36 hours, especially with the use of contraceptives that can distort the result, as they have an antibacterial effect;
• the day before you can not wash with antibacterial soap and douche;
• do not use antibiotics inside;
• you can not take tests during menstruation.
For men:
• you can not go to the toilet 3 hours before taking the test;
• do not take inside uroseptics, antibiotics;
• apply topically solutions that have a disinfecting effect, soap with an antibacterial effect;
• it is not recommended to have sexual contact for 36 hours before taking tests.
Sputum analysis
• the analysis is collected in a sterile laboratory container;
• before collecting sputum, you should brush your teeth, rinse your mouth and throat;
Ultrasonic research
Preparation for abdominal ultrasound
• 2-3 days before the examination, it is recommended to switch to a slag-free diet, exclude from the diet foods that increase gas formation in the intestines (raw vegetables rich in plant fiber, whole milk, black bread, legumes, carbonated drinks, as well as high-calorie confectionery products-cakes, cakes);
• Patients who have problems with the gastrointestinal tract (constipation) should take enzyme preparations and enterosorbents (for example, festal, mezimforte, activated charcoal or espumizan 1 tablet 3 times a day) during this period of time, which will help reduce the manifestations of flatulence;
• Ultrasound of the abdominal cavity should be performed on an empty stomach, if the study can not be carried out in the morning, a light breakfast is allowed.;
• If you are taking medication, please notify your ultrasound doctor;
• You can not conduct a study after gastro-and colonoscopy, as well as R-studies of the gastrointestinal tract.
Preparation for ultrasound of the pelvic organs (bladder, uterus, appendages in women)
• The study is conducted with a full bladder, so you should not urinate before the study for 3-4 hours and drink 1 liter of non-carbonated liquid 1 hour before the procedure.
No special training is required for transvaginal ultrasound (TVS). If the patient has problems with the gastrointestinal tract, it is necessary to conduct a cleansing enema the night before.
Preparation for ultrasound of the bladder and prostate in men
• The study is conducted with a full bladder, so you should not urinate before the study for 3-4 hours and drink 1 liter of non-carbonated liquid 1 hour before the procedure.
Before transrectal examination of the prostate (TRUS), it is necessary to make a cleansing enema.
Preparation for breast ultrasound
• Breast testing should preferably be performed in the first 7-10 days of the menstrual cycle (phase 1 of the cycle).
Preparation for ultrasound of the lumbar spine 
• The study is conducted strictly on an empty stomach after a 4-hour fast.
• Provide a slageless diet in two days.
• Cleansing enema the night before and in the morning, directly on the day of the study.
• Ultrasound of the thyroid gland, lymph nodes and kidneys – do not require special training of the patient.
The patient must have::
• data from previous ultrasound studies (to determine the dynamics of the disease);
• referral for ultrasound examination (purpose of the study, presence of concomitant diseases...);
• a large towel or diaper.
If you are unable to show up at the appointed time, please call your doctor in advance or where you made an appointment!!!

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